Dr Ho Siew Hong
MBBS, FRCS, FICS, FAMS (Urology)
Senior Consultant & Board Certified Urologist (Singapore)
Gleneagles Medical Centre #09-18, Singapore 258499
Tel: +65 647 52512
Cutting Edge Urology Care with Compassion
Common Urology conditions
These are some common urology conditions, arranged according to the organ involved.
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can cause pain, blood in urine and sometimes a feeling of fullness or compression in the abdomen. However,
in many occasions, it may not cause any symptoms. It is best diagnosed with a CT scan or ultrasound examination. An urologist will
perform an ultrasound test as part of his examination of the patient in his clinic. Urology management of kidney cancer ranges from
surgical removal ( nephrectomy
) of part or entire kidney and percutaneous ablation.
Symptoms of pyelonephritis
or kidney infection are fever and pain over the affected kidney (back pain). The urologist manages these infections with antibiotics
and ultrasound or CT scan to ensure response. In some cases, the infection may progress and require surgery to drain any pus that
may have accumulated in pyelonephritis.
Kidney and Ureter stones
Urinary stones originate from the kidney and may migrate in
to the ureter. Stones causing obstruction may result in severe pain and complications such as infection and kidney damage. Stone
includes medication to dissolve certain type of urine stone. Shock wave is commonly used to treat larger kidney or
ureter stones. Surgery by endoscope and laser is done for more complicated ureter stones.
Kidney cyst is a common
urology condition and is usually of congenital origin. Most cysts should be evaluated by a detailed CT scan to determine the exact
size and nature of the cyst. The urologist would observe cysts with suspicious character and may suggest surgical removal if there
is possibility of cancer changes. Large number of cysts may replace the kidney resulting in long-term kidney failure.
Prostate inflammation / Prostatitis
Prostate enlargement or benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH )
is a very common urology condition in elderly men.
BPH is a non-cancer enlargement of the prostate, typically affecting males from 50 years old. Symptoms include difficulty in passing
urine and frequent passage of urine in either day or night. Treatment
includes prescription of medications to decease prostate enlargement.
Endoscope surgery or laser prostate surgery
to remove part of the enlarged prostate is another alternative.
cancer may not be associated with any symptoms at all during the early stage. Early stage cancer is potentially curable by laparoscopic
surgery or radiation. Early diagnosis from blood test by Prostate Specific Antigen
is advised for men above 50
years old. Advanced prostate cancer can still be effectively controlled by hormone therapy.
Prostatitis or prostate inflammation
of the prostate gland may occur suddenly resulting in acute prostatitis. It causes pain in the scrotum, penis, lower abdomen and anus
in addition to fever and general lethargy. This must be treated urgently by the urologist with intravenous antibiotics. Sometimes,
it may progress to chronic inflammation or chronic prostatitis. This is a prolongation of the above symptoms but in a much milder
form and might even last several months. Urology management can be complicated and include long-term antibiotics, anti-inflammation
drugs and drugs to relax the prostate.
Blood in urine, either visible or detected by urine tests, may suggest bladder cancer
. Diagnosis is confirmed by performing
a cystoscopy examination and biopsy of the bladder. The urologist can perform this simple examination under local anesthesia. Early
bladder cancer can be effectively treated by endoscopy removal of the tumor and infusion of chemotherapy agents directly in to the
bladder, avoiding other major side effects of chemotherapy.
Bladder infection or cystitis
Bladder infection is a commoner urology
condition in females than males due to a shorter urinary tube in the female. In any case, they require antibiotics treatment. All
urinary tract infections in male and frequent infections in female (more than 2 in a year) should be investigated by the urologist.
Urology evaluation includes scans of the kidney and cystoscopy examination of the bladder and functional study of the bladder and
process of urination.
Large stones may form in the bladder as a result of chronic bladder infection or inefficient
drainage of urine from the bladder. They may cause blood in the urine, pain during passage of urine and decreased urine flow. Stones
of up to 5cm in size can be effectively treated by scope
and laser surgery. The urologist would fragment the stone to sand particles
Urinary incontinence or leakage that occurs during coughing, sneezing, laughing or exercising
is called stress urinary incontinence. Urology treatment includes pelvic floor exercises, oral medications (pills) or a simple tape
surgery (usually for females). Frequent urination leading to leakage is called urge incontinence. This is corrected with bladder training
exercises and medications. Night incontinence in children is called nocturnal enuresis and is managed by timed voiding and prescription
of a short-term medication.