Dr Ho Siew Hong
Senior Consultant & Board Certified Urologist (Singapore)
Gleneagles Medical Centre #09-18, Singapore 258499
Tel: +65 647 52512


Cutting Edge Urology Care with Compassion

Symptoms suggestive of common urology problems

Urology conditions or problems may present with one or a combination of the following symptoms. These are the most common symptoms that warrant a consultation with the urologist. They are by no means exhaustive nor conclusive.
The four most common urology symptoms are:
1. Urine related symptoms
2. Pain related symptoms
3. Lump related symptoms
4. Abnormal blood test for PSA ( prostate specific antigen ), without any symptoms
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Urine related symptoms

Blood in the urine

Blood in urine is not normal. It may be obvious as passage of red colored urine or silent and only detected through a urine test. In either case, it is considered a significant urology problem that needs further evaluation, especially so in anyone above 50 years old because urinary tract cancers need to be excluded. Causes of blood in the urine include:
-  urine infection
stone in the urine system
-  kidney diseases such as kidney inflammation
-  bladder cancer
-  prostate cancer
prostate enlargement
Blood in urine

Frequent passing of urine

Passage of more than 8 times of urine over 24 hours or more than 3 times in a night is considered excessive and frequent. It can be disturbing and disrupting. Frequent urination is indicative of a bladder disorder. In rare cases, it is attributed to excessive consumption of water of more than 4-5 liters a day. Causes of urine passing of urine include:
-  bladder infection
enlarged prostate (in males)
-  overactive bladder or over sensitive bladder
-  diabetes

Obstructed urine flow

Obstructed or sensation of blocker urine flow may be felt if aging men. It is usually a slow progression and indicative of prostate enlargement. Sudden and complete obstruction may occur if this condition is not treated early. Causes of obstructed urine flow include:
-  prostate enlargement
-  prostate cancer
-  stone in urine tube
-  bladder infection
Straining to pass urine or obstructed urine flow

Incontinence or involuntary leakage of urine

Urine incontinence can range from leakage of a few drops of urine to large amount of urine loss leading to complete wetting of the undergarment. Incontinence can occur during cough or sneezing. It may also happen when a person cannot reach the toilet in time. Causes of urine incontinence include:
-  pelvic floor damage after a difficult delivery or multiple pregnancies
-  bladder infection
-  enlarged prostate (in males)
-  overactive bladder or over sensitive bladder
-  dementia or stroke

Pain when passing urine

Pain before, during and after passage of urine usually indicates a problem in the bladder or urine tube (urethra). The onset of pain may be very sudden and progresses over several hours. Chronic and low-grade infection of the prostate can persist for several weeks or months. Causes of pain during urination include:
-  bladder infection
-  urine tube infection (urethritis, which may be sexually     transmitted disease)
-  prostate infection or prostatitis
-  stone in bladder or urine tube
-  bladder cancer

Pain related symptoms

Pain over back

Pain over the loin or back can be severe and usually indicates the problem is in the kidney or urine tube connecting the kidney to the bladder. Sudden and intense pain suggests a urine stone that is obstructing the kidney. Mild discomfort in the loin over a long period of time may indicate a kidney growth. Causes of pain over the back include:
kidney stone
-  kidney infection
kidney cancer
Pain over back

Pain in the groin

Pain over the groin can originate from the bladder or prostate. A problem in the scrotum may also cause pain to be felt in the groin. A small hernia can cause pain in this area without the appearance of a lump. Causes of pain in the groin include:
-  stone in ureter or bladder
-  infection in prostate or prostatitis
-  bladder infection

Pain in the scrotum

Sudden pain in the scrotum in a child below 20 years of age is a medical emergency. It may indicate torsion of the testes and would require urgent surgical attention from the urologist. Pain in the scrotum can also be due to infection of the epididymis. Causes of pain in the scrotum include:
-  infection of epididymis or epididymitis
-  torsion testis
-  varicocele
-  hernia
testes cancer
Pain in the scrotum

Lump related symptoms

Lump in the scrotum

Scrotal lumps are always abnormal. A physical examination followed by ultrasound is usually necessary to determine the nature of the lump. Causes of lump in the scrotum include:
testes cancer
-  hydrocele
-  chronic epididymis infection
Lump in scrotum

Lump in the groin

A lump in the either groin may or may not be associated with pain. Causes include:
- hernia
- enlarged lymph nodes
- benign skin growth such as lipoma or sebaceous cyst